Concrete is unique in construction and it is only an exclusive product for trading; so it involves a significant share of research and development, and income in the industry to itself. Concrete, a multi-phase, complex and nanostructured material, is a composite structure mainly composed of cement and water. Nanoscience and nanoengineering of concrete are phrases which describe two essential approaches regarding the application of nanotechnology in concrete. Up to now, concrete has been primarily known as a structural material. Nanotechnology is capable of making a multi-functional material from concrete. Concrete can be nanoengineered by incorporating nanoscale building blocks, nanoparticles, nanotubes, etc.
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